1. Amad A, Ramoz N, Thomas P, Jardri R, et al. Genetics of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and proposal of an integrative model. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2014;40:6–19.
2. Amamou B, Salah WB, Mhalla A, Benzarti N, et al. Use of clozapine for borderline personality disorder: a case report. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2016;14:226–8.
3. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5. Auflage. Washington DC, 2013.
4. American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158(Suppl):1–52.
5. Belli H, Ural C, Akbudak M. Borderline personality disorder: bipolarity, mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics in treatment. J Clin Med Res 2012;4:301–8.
6. Bellino S, Paradiso E, Bogetto F. Efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole augmentation in sertraline-resistant patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res 2008;161:206–12.
7. Bellino S, Paradiso E, Bogetto F. Efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:1042–6.
8. Bender DS, Dolan RT, Skodol AE, Sanislow CA, et al. Treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:295–302.
9. Black DW, Zanarini MC, Romine A, Shaw M, et al. Comparison of low and moderate dosages of extended-release quetiapine in borderline personality disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 2014;171:1174–82.
10. Bland AR, Tudor G, McNeil Whitehouse D. Nursing care of inpatients with borderline personality disorder. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2007;43:204–12.
11. Bozzatello P, Brignolo E, De Grandi E, Bellino S. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders: a review of literature data. J Clin Med 2016;5. pii: E67. doi: 10.3390/jcm5080067.
12. Bradley R, Conklin CZ, Westen D. Borderline personality disorder. In: O‘Donohue W, Fowler K, Lilienfeld S (editors). Sage handbook of personality disorders. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 2007: 167–202.
13. Bridler R, Häberle A, Müller ST, Cattapan K, et al. Psychopharmacological treatment of 2195 in-patients with borderline personality disorder: a comparison with other psychiatric disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2015;25:763–72.
14. Brüne M. On the role of oxytocin in borderline personality disorder. Br J Clin Psychol 2016;55:287–304.
15. Carrasco JL, Palomares N, Marsá MD. Effectiveness and tolerability of long-acting intramuscular risperidone as adjuvant treatment in refractory borderline personality disorder. Psychopharmacology 2012;224:347–48.
16. Clark LA, Cuthbert B, Lewis-Fernández R, Narrow WE, et al. Three approaches to understanding and classifying mental disorder: ICD-11, DSM-5, and the National Institute of Mental Health’s Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). Psychol Sci Public Interest 2017;18:72–145.
17. Crawford MJ, Kakad S, Rendel C, Mansour NA, et al. Medication prescribed to people with personality disorder: the influence of patient factors and treatment setting. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2011;124:396–402.
18. De Berardis D, Rapini G, Olivieri L, Di Nicola D, et al. Safety of antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia: a focus on the adverse effects of clozapine. Ther Adv Drug Saf 2018;9:237–56.
19. Dickens GL, Hallett N, Lamont E. Interventions to improve mental health nurses’ skills, attitudes, and knowledge related to people with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder: systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud 2016;56:114–27.
20. Distel MA, Trull TJ, Derom CA, Thiery EW, et al. Heritability of borderline personality disorder features is similar across three countries. Psychol Med 2008;38:1219–29.
21. Gardner DL, Cowdry RW. Alprazolam-induced dyscontrol in borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:98–100.
22. Gorwood P, Rouillon F, Even C, Falissard B, et al. Treatment response in major depression: effects of personality dysfunction and prior depression. Br J Psychiatry 2010;196:139–42.
23. Grant BF, Chou SP, Goldstein RB, Huang B, et al. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 2008;69:533–45.
24. Hancock-Johnson E, Griffiths C, Picchioni M. A focused systematic review of pharmacological treatment for borderline personality disorder. CNS Drugs 2017;31:345–56.
25. Haw C, Stubbs J. Medication for borderline personality disorder: a survey at a secure hospital. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2011;15:280–5.
26. Herpertz SC, Dietrich TM, Wenning B, Krings T, et al. Evidence of abnormal amygdala functioning in borderline personality disorder: a functional MRI study. Biol Psychiatry 2001;50:292–8.
27. Ingenhoven T, Lafay P, Rinne T, Passchier J, et al. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for severe personality disorders: meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 2010;71:14–25.
28. Kaufman KR, Gerner R. Lamotrigine toxicity secondary to sertraline. Seizure 1998;7:163–5.
29. Leiberich P, Nickel MK, Tritt K, Pedrosa Gil F. Lamotrigine treatment of aggression in female borderline patients, Part II: an 18-month follow-up. J Psychopharmacol 2008;22:805–8.
30. Lieb K, Völlm B, Rücker G, Timmer A, et al. Pharmacotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Cochrane systematic review of randomised trials. Br J Psychiatry 2010;196:4–12.
31. Loew TH, Nickel MK, Muehlbacher M, Kaplan P, et al. Topiramate treatment for women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2006;26:61–6.
32. Martín-Blanco A, Ancochea A, Soler J, Elices M, et al. Changes over the last 15 years in the psychopharmacological management of persons with borderline personality disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2017;136:323–31.
33. Moghaddas A, Dianatkhah M, Ghaffari S, Ghaeli P. The potential role of naltrexone in borderline personality disorder. Iran J Psychiatry 2017;12:142–6.
34. Moran P, Stewart R, Brugha T, Bebbington P, et al. Personality disorder and cardiovascular disease: results from a national household survey. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:69–74.
35. Nater UM, Bohus M, Abbruzzese E, Ditzen B, et al. Increased psychological and attenuated cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to acute psychosocial stress in female patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2010;35:1565–72.
36. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Borderline personality disorder-treatment and management. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2008.
37. New AS, Goodman M, Triebwasser J, Siever LJ. Recent advances in the biological study of personality disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2008;31:441–61.
38. Newton-Howes G, Tyrer P, Johnson T. Personality disorder and the outcome of depression: meta-analysis of published studies. Br J Psychiatry 2006;188:13–20.
39. Nickel MK, Muehlbacher M, Nickel C, Kettler C, et al. Aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:833–8.
40. Paolini E, Mezzetti FA, Pierri F, Moretti P. Pharmacological treatment of borderline personality disorder: a retrospective observational study at inpatient unit in Italy. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2017;21:75–9.
41. Paris J, Zweig-Frank H, Guzder J. Psychological risk factors for borderline personality disorder in female patients. Compr Psychiatry 1994;35:301–5.
42. Paris J. Childhood trauma as an etiological factor in the personality disorders. J Pers Disord 1997;11:34–49.
43. Pascual JC, Martín-Blanco A, Soler J, Ferrer A, et al. A naturalistic study of changes in pharmacological prescription for borderline personality disorder in clinical practice: from APA to NICE guidelines. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;25:349–55.
44. Pascual JC, Soler J, Puigdemont D, Pérez-Egea R, et al. Ziprasidone in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Clin Psychiatry 2008;69:603–8.
45. Paton C, Crawford MJ, Bhatti SF, Patel MX, et al. The use of psychotropic medication in patients with emotionally unstable personality disorder under the care of UK mental health services. J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76:e512–8.
46. Philipsen A, Richter H, Schmahl C, Peters J, et al. Clonidine in acute aversive inner tension and self-injurious behavior in female patients with borderline personality disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:1414–9.
47. Rifkin A, Quitkin F, Carrillo C, Blumberg AG, et al. Lithium carbonate in emotionally unstable character disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1972;27:519–23.
48. Ripoll LH. Clinical psychopharmacology of borderline personality disorder: an update on the available evidence in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 5. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2012;25:52–8.
49. Rocca P, Marchiaro L, Cocuzza E, Bogetto F. Treatment of borderline personality disorder with risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63:241–4.
50. Roepke S, Danker-Hopfe H, Repantis D, Behnia B, et al. Doxazosin, an α-1-adrenergic-receptor antagonist, for nightmares in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and/or borderline personality disorder: a chart review. Pharmacopsychiatry 2017;50:26–31.
51. Ruocco AC, Amirthavasagam S, Zakzanis KK. Amygdala and hippocampal volume reductions as candidate endophenotypes for borderline personality disorder: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Psychiatry Res 2012;201:245–52.
52. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock’s comprehensive book of psychiatry. Seventh edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2000.
53. Shafti SS, Shahveisi B. Olanzapine versus haloperidol in the management of borderline personality disorder: a randomized double-blind trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;30:44–7.
54. Silk KR. The process of managing medications in patients with borderline personality disorder. J Psychiatr Pract 2011;17:311–9.
55. Silk KR. The quality of depression in borderline personality disorder and the diagnostic process. J Pers Disord 2010;24:25–37.
56. Simeon D, Baker B, Chaplin W, Braun A, et al. An open-label trial of divalproex extended-release in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. CNS Spectr 2007;12:439–43.
57. Skodol AE, Siever LJ, Livesley WJ, Gunderson JG, et al. The borderline diagnosis II: biology, genetics, and clinical course. Biol Psychiatry 2002;51:951–63.
58. Stanley B, Sher L, Wilson S, Ekman R, et al. Non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, endogenous opioids and monoamine neurotransmitters. J Affect Disord 2010;124:134–40.
59. Stapleton A, Wright N. The experiences of people with borderline personality disorder admitted to acute psychiatric inpatient wards: a meta-synthesis. J Ment Health 2017;7:1–15.
60. Starcevic V, Janca A. Pharmacotherapy of borderline personality disorder: replacing confusion with prudent pragmatism. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018;31:69–73.
61. Stoffers J, Völlm BA, Rücker G, Timmer A, et al. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;16(6):CD005653.
62. Stone MH. Long-term outcome in personality disorders. Br J Psychiatry 1993;162:299–313.
63. Tritt K, Nickel C, Lahmann C, Leiberich PK, et al. Lamotrigine treatment of aggression in female borderline-patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Psychopharmacol 2005;19:287–91.
64. Varghese BS, Rajeev A, Norrish M, Khusaiby SB. Topiramate for anger control: a systematic review. Indian J Pharmacol 2010;42:135–41.
65. White CN, Gunderson JG, Zanarini MC, Hudson JI. Family studies of borderline personality disorder: a review. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2003;11:8–19.
66. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR, Hennen J, Silk KR. Mental health service utilization by borderline personality disorder patients and Axis II comparison subjects followed prospectively for 6 years. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:28–36.
67. Zanarini MC. Childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2000;23:89–101.
Prof. Dr. med. Martin Brüne, Dr. Idalia Nowak, Prof. Dr. Georg Juckel, LWL Universitätsklinikum Bochum, Klinik für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Präventivmedizin, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Alexandrinenstraße 1, 44791 Bochum, E-Mail: email@example.com